MIT Energy Initiative
Energy Classes at MIT

Fundamentals of Smart and Resilient Grids

Meets Energy Minor Requirements



Class Number







Monday, Wednesday
11:30 am-12:30 pm


Introduces the fundamentals of power system structure, operation and control. Emphasizes the challenges and opportunities for integration of new technologies: photovoltaic, wind, electric storage, demand response, synchrophasor measurements. Introduces the basics of power system modeling and analysis. Presents the basic phenomena of voltage and frequency stability as well technological and regulatory constraints on system operation. Describes both the common and emerging automatic control systems and operator decision­-making policies. Subject relies on a combination of traditional lectures and homeworks as well as journal club sessions and group projects.


  1. Introduction to Power Systems: Structure of power grids. Key components, operation and control layers.
  2. Static equilibrium of power system: Voltage/Current phasors, active and reactive power, AC and DC models. Power flows.
  3. Basics of Dynamics of Power grids: Generation. Synchronous generators, frequency and voltage control, power swings.
  4. Markets: Power markets fundamentals, timescales. Optimal power flow. Local marginal prices, losses.
  5. Wind Energy: Wind intermittency, forecast. Generator dynamics. Market participation.
  6. Solar Energy: Potential, intermittency. Distributed generation, inverters.
  7. Electric storage technologies: batteries, flywheels, pumped hydro. Types of services and use ­cases. Vehicle2Grid technologies.
  8. Demand Side Management: Thermostatically controlled loads. Thermal energy storage of buildings. Ancillary services, control strategies.
  9. Microgrids: Microgrid concept, energy and power scales. Autonomous operation. Frequency and voltage regulation in microgrids.
  10. Emergency control: Security and stability of power systems. Operation and planning practices. Major blackouts: lessons learned.
  11. Resilient energy systems. Interdependence of energy infrastructures. Cybersecurity. Risk ­constrained planning and operation.

Go to the MIT Subject Listing

Have you heard?

The Energy Studies Minor provides interdisciplinary perspectives on energy.

Declare it

Do I already have the classes I need?